Gem stones & Minerals

Gem stones & Minerals GB Trip
Gem stones & Minerals GB Trip

Pakistan has gained a prominent position in the international market for supplying a wide variety of gemstones and mineral specimens. The Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan is enriched with the variety of mineral treasures that include peridot, emerald, aquamarine, tourmaline, topaz, ruby, sapphire, garnet, red spinal, pargasite, actinolite, diopside, epidote, vesuvianite, axinite, rodingite, sphene, fluorite, apatite, zircon, rutile, azurite, moonstone, ametrvst, rose quartz and agate.

Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan is composed of three lofty, snow-covered mountain ranges: Himalaya, Hindu Kush and Karakoram. These geomorphic features reflect the geological setting which, in many respects, is unique in the world. These ranges were formed as result of two collisions between India and Asia that occurred between 100 and 50 Ma (million years) ago. These collisions have induced crustal thickening in these mountains, which has resulted in metamorphism and multiple phases of deformation in these rocks. This was followed by the emplacement of leucogranites and associated pegmatites. Theses geological processes have produced a distinctive mineral kingdom within Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan.

Gem stones & Minerals GB Trip
Gem stones & Minerals GB Trip

The  Gilgit-Baltistan  Province includes  arsenic (arsenopyrite,  chalcopyrite, malachite, pyrite) from Dainyor Nala (15km NE of Gilgit) and Bagrot Nala (20km N of Gilgit); bauxite from Chapursan (Hunza); copper and gold associated with gossan/red iron oxide/ochre and base  metals  of  Karakoram  and  Shyok  Sutures  like  Dainyor  Nala  (NW  of  Gilgit),  Barit, Bulashgah (also magnetite pod in  ophiolitic rocks), Majadar  and Bor  Nala, and  Bagrot Nala, Henzil (10km NW of Gilgit),  Sher Qila (33km NW of Gilgit), Singal  (45km NW  of Gilgit), Nazbar valley (22km W of Yasin), Shigari Bala area of Skardu and Golo Das and surrounding areas, iron from Indus Suture and its vicinity areas like Chilas, east of Gilgit, western, northern and eastern part of Hamosh massif forming lobe; lithium/lepidolite from Shengus of Nanga Parbat Massive (numerous pegmatites intruded in gneissic rocks); sheet mica/muscovite from many pegmatites like Astor, Bagarian and Hawa Gali; uranium from many areas; graphite from Nagar Hunza, Chalt and Chelish; and  widely exposed limestones and marbles from different areas; and coal  from Chapursan  valley. The  Gilgit-Baltistan represents  many gemstones  like aquamarine from Askere, Shingus, Dusso and Tisgtung of Gilgit; emerald from Khaltaro of Gilgit; moonstone from Shingus and Bulechi (Gilgit); quartz from Gilgit and Skardu; red ruby Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences, Abstract Volume, 58-59. Earth Sciences Pakistan  2014, August  29-31,  Baragali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.

59  and spinel (magnesium aluminate; from hunza are more attractive than Burma), and pargasite cabochons (green amphibolite;  locally purchased as Hunza  emerald) from Hunza valley; rose quartz from Dusso pegmatites near Skardu; topaz from pegmatites from Bulechi, Shingus and Gone near Dusso in Skardu; gem tourmaline (pink, blue, green and black) from pegmatites of Haramosh Range like Stak Nala between Gilgit  and Skardu,  Bulechi and Shingus;  beautiful pyrite, malachite and azurite in pegmatite near Gilgit.

Gem Stones & Minerals GB Trip

The three mountain ranges of Gilgit-Baltistan; Himalayas, Hindukush, and Karakoram contain many minerals and gems including emerald, ruby, sapphire, aquamarine, moonstone, and amethyst. A number of other minerals are also found in the region such as peridot, tourmaline, topaz, garnet, red spinal, pargasite, diopside, sphene, apatite, azurite, rose quartz, and agate. In Swat, pale green to green coloured emeralds can be found in talc-carbonate schist. In Hunza, well formed pink to red crystals of ruby are found, while in Neelum valley high quality rubies also occur.

Gilgit Baltistan

Gem Stone In Baltistan GB TRIP
Gem Stone In Baltistan GB TRIP

The three mountain ranges of Gilgit-Baltistan; Himalayas, Hindukush, and Karakoram contain many minerals and gems including emerald, ruby, sapphire, aquamarine, moonstone, and amethyst. A number of other minerals are also found in the region such as peridot, tourmaline, topaz, garnet, red spinal, pargasite, diopside, sphene, apatite, azurite, rose quartz, and agate. In Swat, pale green to green coloured emeralds can be found in talc-carbonate schist. In Hunza, well formed pink to red crystals of ruby are found, while in Neelum valley high quality rubies also occur.

Region Gemstones Notes
Chilas Alluvial diopside, zircon, rutile quartz, aquamarine, and tourmaline The image shows a pyramidal reddish-orange zircon crystal from Chilas.
Gilgit and Shigar Aquamarine, topaz, emerald, ruby, pollucite, rutile quartz, morganite, apatite, spinel, and pargasite Golden and white topaz are found in the region. The image shows rare pink apatite with albite from Nagar Valley.
Shengus, Stak Nala, and Tormiq Nala Aquamarine, topaz, tourmaline, apatite, sphene, morganite, and quartz Image shows deep purple apatite from Shengus.
Shigar Proper Apatite, zoisite, rutile quartz, epidote, and morganite The image shows pastel-pink apatite with quartz from Shigar.
Childee, Kashmal, and Yuno (Shigar valley) Aquamarine, emerald-coloured tourmaline, apatite, morganite, topaz, and quartz The image shows aquamarine cluster from the area.
Testun, Dassu, Net Tahirabad, and Goyungo Topaz, aquamarine, tourmaline, morganite, apatite, quartz, and emerald Golden coloured Topaz of high quality is found here. Rare earth minerals are also found.